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(For literature in Chinese, see the article Chinese literature.) Turkish runes.” They relate in epic and forceful language the origins of the Turks, their golden age, their subjugation by the Chinese, and their liberation by Bilge Kagan.
The polished style suggests considerable earlier development of the language.
Manuscripts and block-printed books are always of elongated shape, thus imitating the form of ancient Indian palm-leaf manuscripts.There are considerable collections in some European libraries—London, Paris, and Rome—but few translations are available, because of the small number of scholars of Tibet.Despite the phonetic changes in the spoken dialects since the Tibetans have never changed their system of writing.(For a treatment of these languages, see Altaic languages and Sino-Tibetan languages.) This article will deal with Tibetan and Mongolian literatures from their inception to the 20th century and with Turkic literature from its inception to the 11th centuries, when the Muslim invasion introduced a period of Islāmic culture.Subsequent Turkic literature and Central Asian literatures written in Arabic and Persian are treated in the article arts, Islāmic.