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Thus far, Russia and China have successfully managed their differences in Central Asia, the Russian Far East, and the Arctic, but potentially divergent interests remain over the long term.Some Russians now quietly express concern about Beijing’s growing geoeconomic and geopolitical ambitions in the Asia Pacific region.Summary: Engagement in Central Asia, the Russian Far East, and the Arctic has tested Russia’s and China’s abilities to manage their differences and translate the rhetoric of partnership into tangible gains.Since the collapse of Russia’s relationship with the West over Ukraine, the Sino-Russian strategic partnership has become more of a reality.Sharing a geopolitical worldview of multipolarity, they both have firm desires to contain Western power and seek to accelerate what they see as the weakening of the United States.With a common desire to shift the center of global power from the Euro-Atlantic space to the East, they aim to rewrite at least some of the rules of global governance, suggesting that their partnership is becoming increasingly strategic.It offers still undefined pledges to coordinate Russia’s Eurasian Economic Union with the BRI.

Although the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) initially embraced Moscow as a partner in the early 1990s, it expanded to include former Warsaw Pact countries, conducted operations in the Balkans against Moscow’s wishes, and eventually increased its military footprint across Eurasia to support the Afghan war effort.Yet the Chinese-Russian relationship is complex, with lingering mistrust on both sides.Despite the grand ambitions for cooperation voiced by the two countries’ leaders, achieving substantive results often eludes them, particularly in the Russian Far East and the Arctic, where realizing the plethora of trade, investment, and infrastructure deals announced since 2014 has been difficult.However, the two countries split ideologically during the Nikita Khrushchev era, becoming Cold War adversaries by the 1960s with a highly militarized and disputed border that stretched 4,380 kilometers.A series of border clashes in 1969 left scores of mostly Chinese soldiers dead.

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