Relative age dating principles
Once something dies, it ceases taking in new carbon-14, and the existing carbon-14 within the organism decays into nitrogen at a fixed rate.Scientists measure the proportion of carbon-14 left in the organism to determine its age.Look at the two nearly identical diagrams, Figures 7 and 8.The order of events in the archaeological cross section shows that the oldest remains are Roman.A chance encounter between determined fishermen and a great white shark off the Tuscan coast in 1666 sparked a chain of events that would help change humans views of fossils and Earth’s geologic past (Cutler 2003, pp. Nicolas Steno (1638-1686) dissected the head of this shark and realized fossil tongue stones believed to be petrified snake or dragon tongues were actually fossil shark teeth (Prothero 1998, p. One problem still existed, how do fossils become embedded in solid rock?Steno recognized that fossils represent organisms that became buried in sediment, which later turned into rock.Relative dating uses observation of location within rock layers, while radiometric dating uses data from the decay of radioactive substances within an object.
Relative dating helps determine what came first and what followed, but doesn't help determine actual age.
Examples include fractures, faults, and igneous intrusions.
Igneous intrusions are sometimes referred to as a seperate principle, the Hutton’s theory of uniformatarianism and the principles of stratigraphy would be fully developed and made popular by another Scottish geologist Charles Lyell (1797-1875) with his classic three volume work, first published from 1830 to 1833, entitled The science of stratigraphy changed humans’ view of the world from one, which was static to one that was dynamic and changing.
Stratigraphy is a branch of geology that studies rock strata with an emphasis on distribution, deposition, age and evidence of past life.
Nicolas Steno, William Smith, Georges Cuvier, Alexandre Brongniart, and James Hutton developed the basic rules for the science of stratigraphy.