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(The summit of Everest is composed of deep-marine limestone, with fossils of ocean-bottom dwelling crinoids [Gansser, 1964].) If these were formed during the Flood, how did they reach their present height, and when were the valleys between them eroded away? They thus seem to require at least two periods of deposition (more, where there is more than one unconformity) with long periods of time in between to account for the deformation, erosion, and weathering observed. Many very tall mountains are composed of sedimentary rocks. Logical, Philosophical, and Theological Points Acknowledgements reationist models are often criticized for being too vague to have any predictive value. Genesis 6-8 can be interpreted as a homiletic story such that the "world" that was flooded was just the area that Noah knew. A stable-isotope tree-ring timescale of the late glacial Holocene boundary. [For example, see Donohoe & Grantham, 1989, for locations of contact between the South Mountain Batholith and the Meugma Group of sediments, as well as some angular unconformities.] How can a single flood be responsible for such extensively detailed layering? Eolian sandstones in Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic red beds of the Fundy Basin, Nova Scotia. However, many other animals, particularly land arthropods, must also have been on the ark for two reasons: Were dinosaurs and other extinct animals on the ark? Institute for Creation Research, Santee, California. Koalas, for example, require eucalyptus leaves, and silkworms eat nothing but mulberry leaves. At these temperatures, much of the atmosphere would boil off the Earth. (Minor arithmetic errors in totals are corrected.) Woodmorappe treats many animals as juveniles; "yearling" masses are masses of those animals after one year of growth. Most flood models (including those above, possibly excepting Hovind's) deal with the water after the flood by proposing that it became our present oceans. Proceedings of the third international conference on creationism, technical symposium sessions, pp. In an oxygen-rich regime, they would almost certainly be impossible. Mineralization is the replacement of the original material with a different mineral.
It's entirely possible that a global flood occurred 4000 years ago or even last Thursday, and that God subsequently erased all the evidence, including our memories of it. Abrupt increase in Greenland snow accumulation at the end of the Younger Dryas event. And yet despite this, the chemical properties of the rock are neatly layered, with great changes (e.g.) in percent carbonate occurring within a few centimeters in the vertical direction. Palaeogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 132: 5-23. Ecological zonation, hydrodynamic sorting, and differential escape fail to explain: How could these have appeared in the midst of a catastrophic flood? [e.g., Short et al, 1991] How was the fossil record sorted in an order convenient for evolution? The longest wooden ships in modern seas are about 300 feet, and these require reinforcing with iron straps and leak so badly they must be constantly pumped. There is a reason why Gila monsters, yaks, and quetzals don't all live together in a temperate climate. [Zimmer, 1992] How do you explain the formation of varves? Wood is simply not strong enough to prevent separation between the joints, especially in the heavy seas that the Ark would have encountered. Competition between species would have driven most of them to extinction. How can you explain a thin layer of high carbonate sediment being deposited over an area of ten thousand square kilometers for some thirty minutes, followed by thirty minutes of low carbonate deposition, etc.?